Nickel (Ni)

General Properties

Symbol Ni
Atomic Number 28
Atomic Weight 58.6934
Group
10 (nickel family)
VIIIA (IUPAC), VIII (CAS)
Solid, Ferromagnetic, Conductor, Transition Metal, Metal, Stable, Natural
Period 4
Block d

Physical Properties

Density 8.9 g/cm3
Atomic Volume 6.6 cm3/mole
Atomic Radius 1.24 angstroms
Covalent Radius 121 pm
Crust Abundance 0.0089%
Crystal Structure Cubic: Face centered
Color Gray

Energy

Electronegativity 1.9 (Pauling Scale)
Electron Affinity 112 kJ/mol
1st Ionization Energy 737 kJ/mol
2nd Ionization Energy 1753.0 kJ/mol
3rd Ionization Energy 3395 kJ/mol
4th Ionization Energy 5300 kJ/mol
5th Ionization Energy 7339 kJ/mol
6th Ionization Energy 10400 kJ/mol
7th Ionization Energy 12800 kJ/mol
8th Ionization Energy 15600 kJ/mol
9th Ionization Energy 18600 kJ/mol
10th Ionization Energy 21670 kJ/mol
11th Ionization Energy 30970 kJ/mol
12th Ionization Energy 34000 kJ/mol
13th Ionization Energy 37100 kJ/mol
14th Ionization Energy 41500 kJ/mol
15th Ionization Energy 44800 kJ/mol
16th Ionization Energy 48100 kJ/mol
17th Ionization Energy 55101 kJ/mol
18th Ionization Energy 58570 kJ/mol
19th Ionization Energy 148700 kJ/mol
20th Ionization Energy 159000 kJ/mol
21st Ionization Energy 169400 kJ/mol
22nd Ionization Energy 182700 kJ/mol
23rd Ionization Energy 194000 kJ/mol
24th Ionization Energy 205600 kJ/mol
25th Ionization Energy 221400 kJ/mol
26th Ionization Energy 231490 kJ/mol
27th Ionization Energy 992718 kJ/mol
28th Ionization Energy 1039668 kJ/mol
Specific Heat Capacity 0.444 J g−1 K−1
Thermal Conductivity 90.7 W·m−1·K−1

Electrons & Oxidation

Oxidation States +2,3
Electrons Per Shell 2 8 16 2
Electron Configuration [Ar] 3d8 4s2
1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d8 4s2
Orbital Diagram
1s
↿⇂
2s
↿⇂
2p
↿⇂
↿⇂
↿⇂
3s
↿⇂
3p
↿⇂
↿⇂
↿⇂
3d
↿⇂
↿⇂
↿⇂
↿ 
↿ 
4s
↿⇂
4p
 
 
 
4d
 
 
 
 
 
4f
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

Nuclear

Radioactive No

Media

Planetary Bohr Model of Nickel (Ni)
Description
Hard, malleable, silvery-white metal. Found in the earth's crust in portions averaging 70 ppm. It can be polished to a lustrous finish. Virtually no corrosion under normal conditions.
Uses
Used in electroplating and metal alloys because of its resistance to corrosion. Also in nickel-cadmium batteries; as a catalyst and for coins.
Sources
Chiefly found in pentlandite [(Ni,Fe)9S8] ore. The metal is produced by heating the ore in a blast furnace which replaces the sulfur with oxygen. The oxides are then treated with an acid that reacts with the iron not the nickel.
Pronounciation (English)
NIK-l

Translations

Afrikaans Nikkel
Aragonese Níquel
العربية نيكل
Armãneashte Nichelu
asturianu Níquel
azərbaycan dili Nikel
български Никел
বাংলা নিকেল
brezhoneg Nikel
bosanski Nikl, ²Nikal
Byelorussian Нікель
Cebuano Nikel
čeština Nikl, Pochvistík†
Chuvash Никель
Cymraeg Níquel
dansk Nikkel
Deutsch Nickel
Ελληνικά Νικελιο
English Nickel
esperanto Nikelo
español Níquel
eesti Nikkel
euskara Nikela
فارسی نیکل
suomi Nikkeli
føroyskt Nikkul
français Nickel
furlan Nichel
West-Frysk Nikkel
Gaeilge Nicil
Gàidhlig Nicil
galego Níquel
ગુજરાતી નિકલનો
Gaelg Nickyl
Hakka Chinese Ngiap (鎳)
עברית ניקל
हिन्दी निकेल
hrvatski Nikal
magyar Nikkel
հայերեն Նիկել
Indonesia Nikel
íslenska Nikull
italiano Nichelio
日本語 ニッケル
ქართული ნიკელი
کٲشُر Nikel
қазақ тілі Никель
한국어 니켈
Kurdish Nîkel
Komi Никель
kernewek Nykel
кыргызча Никель
Latin Niccolum
Lëtzebuergesch Nickel
Lombard Níchel
lingála Nikɛ́li
lietuvių Nikelis
latviešu Niķelis
Mari Никель
Maori Konukōreko
македонски Никел
മലയാളം നിക്കല്
монгол Никель
Мокшан Никиль
Bahasa Melayu Nikel
Malti Nikil
Nahuatl Iztāctepoztli
Nederlands Nikkel
norsk Nikkel
Occitan Niquèl
ирон Згъæры мыггаг
polski Nikiel
português Níquel
Runasimi Nikil
română Nichel
русский Никель
slovenčina Nikel
slovenščina Nikelj
Samoan Niklimi
Samogitian Nėkelis
shqip Nikel, ²Nikli
српски Никал
Southern Sotho Nikele
svenska Nickel
Kiswahili Nikeli
தமிழ் நிக்கல்
Tajik Никел
ไทย นิกเกิล
Türkçe Nikel
ئۇيغۇرچە نىكېل
українська Нікель
o‘zbek Nikel
Tiếng Việt Nikel
Võro Nikli
中文

History

Discovered In
1751
Discovered By
Axel Fredrik Cronstedt
Discovered At
Sweden
Word Origin
From the German word "kupfernickel" meaning Devil's copper or St Nicholas's (Old Nick's) copper