Germanium (Ge)

General Properties

Symbol Ge
Atomic Number 32
Atomic Weight 72.64
Group
14 (carbon family)
IVB (IUPAC), IVA (CAS)
Solid, Diamagnetic, Semiconductor, Stable, Natural, Metalloid
Period 4
Block p

Physical Properties

Density 5.32 g/cm3
Atomic Volume 13.6 cm3/mole
Atomic Radius 1.37 angstroms
Covalent Radius 122 pm
Crust Abundance 0.00014%
Crystal Structure Cubic: Face centered
Color Gray

Energy

Electronegativity 2.0 (Pauling Scale)
Electron Affinity 119 kJ/mol
1st Ionization Energy 762 kJ/mol
2nd Ionization Energy 1537.5 kJ/mol
3rd Ionization Energy 3302.1 kJ/mol
4th Ionization Energy 4411 kJ/mol
5th Ionization Energy 9020 kJ/mol
Specific Heat Capacity 0.32 J g−1 K−1
Thermal Conductivity 59.9 W·m−1·K−1

Electrons & Oxidation

Oxidation States +4,2
Electrons Per Shell 2 8 18 4
Electron Configuration [Ar] 3d10 4s2 4p2
1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d10 4s2 4p2
Orbital Diagram
1s
↿⇂
2s
↿⇂
2p
↿⇂
↿⇂
↿⇂
3s
↿⇂
3p
↿⇂
↿⇂
↿⇂
3d
↿⇂
↿⇂
↿⇂
↿⇂
↿⇂
4s
↿⇂
4p
↿ 
↿ 
 
4d
 
 
 
 
 
4f
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

Nuclear

Radioactive No

Media

Planetary Bohr Model of Germanium (Ge)
Lewis Dot Diagram of Germanium (Ge)
Description
Grayish-white metal.
Uses
Widely used in semiconductors. It is a good semiconductor when combined with tiny amounts of phosphorus, arsenic, gallium, and antimony.
Sources
Obtained from refining copper, zinc and lead.
Pronounciation (English)
jer-MAY-ni-em

Translations

Afrikaans Germanium
Aragonese Chermanio
العربية جرمانيوم
Armãneashte Ghermaniumu
asturianu Xermaniu
azərbaycan dili Germanium
български Гермаиий
বাংলা জার্মেনিয়াম
brezhoneg Germaniom
bosanski Germanij[um]
Byelorussian Германій
Cebuano Germanio
čeština Germanium
Chuvash Германи
Cymraeg Germani
dansk Germanium
Deutsch Germanium
Ελληνικά Γερμανιο
English Germanium
esperanto Germanio
español Germánio
eesti Germaanium
euskara Germanioa
فارسی ژرمانیم
suomi Germanium
føroyskt Germanium
français Germanium
furlan Gjermani
West-Frysk Germanium
Gaeilge Gearmáiniam
Gàidhlig Gearmainiam
galego Xermanio
ગુજરાતી જર્મેનિયમનો
Gaelg Germaanium
Hakka Chinese Châ (鍺)
עברית גרמניום
हिन्दी जर्मेनियम
hrvatski Germanij
magyar Germánium
հայերեն .երմանիում
Indonesia Germanium
íslenska German
italiano Germanio
日本語 ゲルマニウム
ქართული გერმანიუმი
کٲشُر Germón
қазақ тілі Германий
한국어 게르마늄, 2저마늄
Kurdish Germanyûm
Komi Германий
kernewek Germanyum
кыргызча Германий
Latin Germanium
Lëtzebuergesch Germanium
Lombard Germàni
lingála Jemani
lietuvių Germanis
latviešu Ģermānijs
Mari Германий
Maori Germanium
македонски Германиум
മലയാളം ജെര്‍മേനിയം
монгол Германи
Мокшан Германи
Bahasa Melayu Germanium
Malti Ġermanju[m]
Nahuatl Germanio
Nederlands Germanium
norsk Germanium
Occitan Germani
ирон Германий
polski German
português Germânio
Runasimi Germanyu
română Germaniu
русский Германий
slovenčina Germánium
slovenščina Germanij
Samoan Germanimi
Samogitian Germanis
shqip Germanium
српски Германијум
Southern Sotho Germaniamo
svenska Germanium
Kiswahili Gerimani
தமிழ் ஜெர்மானியம்
Tajik Германий
ไทย เจอร์เมเนียม
Türkçe Germanyum
ئۇيغۇرچە گېرمانىي
українська Германій
o‘zbek Germaniy
Tiếng Việt Gecmani
Võro Germaanium
中文

History

Discovered In
1886
Discovered By
Clemens Winkler
Discovered At
Germany
Word Origin
From the Latin word "Germania" meaning "Germany"