Types of Magnetic Materials

Paramagnetic

Paramagnetic materials Can be magnetized to attract external magnetic fields, but cannot retain magnetism. Paramagnetic materials have a magnetic permeability of more than µ0. They usually have free electrons, especially d and f electrons. Their magnetization follows Curie’s Law (M = C · B/T). Examples of paramagnets are tungsten and cesium.

Diamagnetic

Diamagnetic materials can be magnetized to repulse external magnetic fields, but cannot retain magnetism. Diamagnetic materials have a magnetic permeability of less than µ0. Examples of diamagnets are bismuth and antimony.

Ferromagnetic

Ferromagnetic: Can be magnetized and retain magnetism. Ferromagnetism depends both on the chemical composition and the structure of the material (iron is a ferromagnet, while stainless steel is not). Examples of ferromagnets include cobalt and iron.